Weight Training Basics
Why do you warm-up?
Warming up helps prevent injuries and improves performance.
How do you know if you are warmed up?
You are warm.
What is a safe and effective range of repetitions?
What is an effective number of sets?
What is a spotter?
A spotter keeps another weight lifter safe when lifting.
When do you stretch?
Stretch after exercising. You may also stretch after the warm-up.
Why do you stretch?
You stretch to improve flexibility which helps reduce exercise related injuries.
What is the Overload Principle?
The overload principle is a method used to gradually increase strength, endurance and cardiovascular endurance.
There are three ways to overload any type of exercise: Remember the acronym FIT!
(F)requency: How many days a week do you do the exercise?
(I)ntensity: How hard is the exercise?
(T)ime: How much time do you spend on the exercise?
How do you use the Overload Principle?
If you make a SMALL change to an exercise’s frequency, intensity or time, you will eventually be rewarded with more strength. Only change one variable at a time to avoid overtraining.
What is overtraining?
When you exercise a muscle too hard, or without rest between exercise days, your muscle will hurt.
What happens if you don’t exercise a muscle regularly?
When you don’t exercise a muscle, it becomes weaker. This is called muscular atrophy.
Calories and Body Fat
What is a calorie?
A measurement of energy.
How many calories are there in a pound of fat?
How many calories does the average person use per day?
The average person uses around 2,000 calories a day.
This number is higher if you are very athletic or have a very active lifestyle.
This number is lower if you aren’t very athletic or don’t have a very active lifestyle.
Why is having excess body fat a problem?
Having too much fat means that you have to carry extra weight. This extra weight slows you down, makes you tired easily, makes your heart work extra hard, can increase blood pressure, and can eventually harm the joints in your legs.
What should you do if you have too much fat?
Exercise more, and eat less. Make smart choices by reading the Nutrition Facts on each food or drink. Aerobic exercise (walking, jogging, biking, running, etc) is the most effective at using body fat.
The Nutrition Facts Label
What is a serving size?
A serving size is what a food/drink manufacturer thinks is a reasonable amount to eat/drink at one time.
What does “Servings Per Container” mean?
How many servings are in the package.
What is fat?
Fat is used as a source of energy.
What does “Total Fat” mean?
The number of grams of fat that are in a serving.
What is saturated fat?
Consuming too much saturated fat can lead to heart disease. They are found in most animal products and some non-animal products such as coconuts, nuts and seeds. You should limit how much you consume.
What is trans fat?
Consuming too much trans fat can lead to heart disease. They are found in many fast food items.
What is cholesterol?
Consuming too much cholesterol can lead to heart disease. Cholesterol is found only in foods that come from animals including meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese and eggs.
What are carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are used as a source of energy. Grains, cereal, pasta, fruits and vegetables have a lot of carbohydrates.
What is fiber?
Fiber is a nutrient found in plant based foods. It helps to lower cholesterol, prevents Type 2 Diabetes, reduces hunger, and helps with defecation.
What is protein?
Protein is a nutrient that is used to build all the different cells in your body. Meat, fish, poultry and beans have a lot of protein, but other foods have some protein too.
What are vitamins and minerals?
We need many different vitamins and minerals which are necessary for good health. Compared to fat, protein and carbohydrates, we don’t need much of each one, but we must have them to be healthy.
What is junk food?
A food that has a lot of calories, but doesn’t offer much protein, fiber, vitamins or minerals.
Can you sweat off fat?
No. Forcing yourself to sweat by overheating yourself only makes you lose water. Water and fat are not the same thing.
Can I lose fat from one spot by doing an exercise?
No. You cannot pick and choose where the energy that you use from fat comes from. If this were true, then most people would have skinny legs because everyone walks, but not everyone does push-ups or sit-ups.
Will eating excess protein make me stronger, faster?
No. Active people need more protein than other people, but consuming more than you need will not help you gain muscle faster. An extremely high amount of protein can actually hurt you.